1.Study of pathologic akinesia (catatonic stupor).
The next stage of our work was devoted to hypnotically modeling of catatonic akinesia and its differentiation from catalepsy of catatonic stupor condition which are similar in title but different in subtle symptomatology and EEG.
The phenomenon of catalepsy was studied both by hypnologists and psychiatrists. Numerous amount of works is devoted to pathological catalepsy which is called in psychiatry as flexibilitas cerea, and is typically observed during the catatonic stupor form of schizophrenia. Our main objective was to find out criteria which allow differentiating catalepsy during schizophrenia from one in hypnosis and their possible use in theory and practice in psychology and psychiatry.
Relying on the results of our full-scale research we could draw further conclusions:
1) Hypnotic catalepsy can be considered as a model of akinesia (kinetic deprivation) with generalized disafferentiating effect on sensomotor and emotional cerebral functions. Blockade of kinesthetic afferential projections can be performed as physiological correlate of active refusal from motion activity. By “closing” sensory outlets that connect a subject with external environment, a patient “cuts oneself off” (deprivates) from a satiation real for him and becomes totally motionless.
2) Clinical symptomatology of hypnotic catalepsy is different from pathologic stupor conditions in many ways.
3) Neurophysiologic EEG-correlates of cataleptic phenomenon allows us to distinguish objectively hypnotic state from pathology. This research allowed us to protect hypnosis as a method from possible attracts from the side of conservatives in the sphere of psychiatry and confirm harmlessness and physiologicality of hypnotic procedures and states.
Results of the research were published in Independent Journal of Psychiatry, № IV, p. 27-29, Moscow, 2009. The article’s title was “Comparative characteristics of physiological and pathological akinesia”.
2. Working since year 2009 in private clinic in “Doctor D” in Tashkent we have put all our long-term experience into creation of exclusive psychotherapeutic room on psychotherapy. It included colour design, creation of 3-D graphic figurers, music accompaniment in rhythms of relaxation and meditation, surrealistic pictures and technical equipment that made it possible to analyze results of cerebral activity in modeling states of a consciousness.
A great deal of support on behalf of clinic’s director D.S. Irgashev let us to organize the psychotherapeutic room with the highest level of visual-aesthetic gamma of psychotherapeutic design. A single fact of provision of the necessary facilities for the room arouses readiness in patients to valid communication with a psychotherapeutist. We have also prepared fully equipped laboratory complex for patients’ condition control. The distant recording of EEG with its further psychophisiologic interpretation is planned.
3. Further research plans
The study of somnambulists we have started should have continuation because somnambulists possess a full complex of wonderful phenomena that could be used for increase of physical plus intellectual and moral plus ethical qualities of a human as Homo sapiens.
In our research on highly hypnotic subjects during catalepsy we have found out the maximal hypnotic stage – somnambulism – that indicates the effectiveness of hypnotic method we used. The subjects (somnambulists) were evaluated according to their reaction of α-rhythm effect through occipital lead on the attempt of eyes opening in a state of catalepsy.
During the period of somnambulistic suggestions, experiences and motions activization of α-rhythm on EEG begins and it characterizes bioelectrical reaction of brain on verbal and other stimulations and somnambulistic status of a personality. Elimination of somnambulistic experiences by suggestion in accordance with patient’s individual futures and speed of inhibition irradiation in cerebral cortex leads to gradual decrease of α- and β-rhythms and their substitution with θ-waves (somnambulistic hypnotic dream).
We used the data which Volgiesi (1969) and Broughton (1968) got during inventional EEG-examination of somnambulists. They have found out the change of activity towards α-rhythm which didn’t yield neither to light nor any other stimuli and didn’t disappear when eyes were open. This proved that they have been in a state of deep hypnosis (citing Wayne A.M., 1974). Kales А. et.all. (1966) have revealed similar (paradoxic) α-rhythm activity.
In our own research, in the state of stable catalepsy we observed the paradoxic α-rhythm reaction: in subjects with high hypnoability we have found out that α-rhythm does not yield to external stimuli and when eyes were open, but it even intensifies in main features in relation to test with eyes closed in unhypnotic state (background test).
The data we got from 14 subjects in the state of modeled catalepsy indicated the phenomenon of somnambulism.
Is it reasonable to mention that the data we got about the increase of θ- and δ-rhythmic brain activity in a state of catalepsy and in subjects with high hypnoability indicate that these states are healthy for brain as according to Harrison T.R. (2002) these types of arrhythmic activities disappear during wakefulness in the same way as during sleep in some states of psychic disorders (e.g., depression or schizophrenia). As a rule, θ-rhythm activity is connected with positive inclination, and δ-rhythms activity is connected with a state of deep relaxation and emotional rest. Probably, regeneration of low-frequency activity, restoration of functionality and metabolic processes in brain take place as well. Particularly, Zenkov L.R. (2002) indicates on physiologism of somnambulism, and Rotnberg V.S. claims that somnambulism facilitates the increase of emotional stress.
Our own study on some volunteers revealed that in majority of cases (48%) the somnambular stage of hypnosis took place. According to Ovchinikova O.V. (1989), if a research is carried out on people with normal social adaptation, ones without any physical or mental deviations, it can be concluded that facts and regularity of results received from highly hypnotic subjects are holistic. This confirms that the methodological approach we chose for the investigation of healthy subjects with the aim of hypnotic groups’ revelation is objective.
The data we got can characterize somnambulism as phenomenon only partially.
Another issue that attracted our attention was twins.
In 1981 J. Hasset in his monograph “An introduction to Psychology” described genetic Lykken et al. (1974), when they made a comparison of EEG power-density spectrum between pairs of enzygotic (identical) twins and dizygotic (non-identical) twins. The maim aim of the research was the study of susceptibility of twins to hypnosis. In the case of enzygotic twins the similarity of EEG features, in contrast with dizygotic twins, defines this characteristic as hereditary.
We tried to carry out a similar experiment. In our case enzygotic twins (Khasan and Khusan) did not reveal any similarity neither in EEG features nor in psychophysiologic ones.
4. Popularization of hypnosis through journals.
Historically it happened so that public opinion about hypnosis is quite complex. That is why we issue the challenge to tell the public as frank and understandable as possible about this wonderful psychotherapy in popular science journals such as Darmon, Medical Review, Tashkent Week, New Time Nexus (Athens).
Publication in Greek journal Psychiatry, № 4, 2010. from the Greek Psychiatry Association the article D.N. Sakellion and B.R. Kadirov’s «Ψυχοφυσιολογική έρευνα της κατάστασης της υπνωτικής καταληψίας» (“Psychophysiologic Research on Hypnotic Catalepsy”)
5. After visiting International Conference on Neurology in Geneva, Switzerland, we understood that western scientists led by Americans didn’t leave the idea of cerebral pacemaker creation without attention. As they have a strong scientific and technical base, they focus on brain scanning during metabolic and genetic disorders of anatomic and physiological work of brain. In its turn, the method of antiphrasis influence (effect) on sensory systems is widely used.
Not complicating the existing situation, we continue to study the adaptation facilities of human brain by the means of sensory deprivation, inviting for investigation all interested parties.
An issue of cerebral pacemaker (Geneva, 2010). American system of brain scanning during Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, dementia…